Archive for the 'Yamaha FS1R' Category

Hacking the FS1r Part1 – Zeeedit Patch Editor v2

January 18, 2013

A new version of Zeeedit was released on Jan 1st 2013. PC only.

People may well quibble about the license terms (42 euro locked to one computer), however I think it is an excellent investment if you intend to get serious use from the FS1r.
Sakura is also excellent, but Zeeedit wins on presentation – everything is laid-out beautifully in comprehensive overviews. This makes the FS1r very accessible to me. YMMV.

I decided to record my largely incoherent ramblings on Zeeedit – doing so provides an overview of the FS1r architecture. This will bore the hell out of 99.99999999% of people. But I think it might be be useful to the new FS1r owner struggling in the waves. Hence, and for posterity…

No loud noises in these ones…


Yamaha FS1R tutorial

September 30, 2011

The FS1R is a synthesiser. That means it makes up its sounds from scratch, unlike a sampler, which fundamentally plays back a digital recording like a tape recorder, or many other keyboards which, although called synths, are actually a combination of samples and synthesis.

via Yamaha FS1R tutorial | Technical Problems.

FS1r: FSEQ editor in Flash

July 18, 2011


It’s not as feature-rich as FSeqEdit yet, but you can audition your formant sequences to hear how they sound.

From Zach Archer’s Blog.

via Yahoo FS1r Group.

Fun with Formants: Vocal Sounds with Crystal

June 27, 2011

Crystal is useful for making synthetic sounds that don’t occur in nature. If instead you want truly human vocal sounds, you’re probably better off with a sampler. Although, even with a sampler, realistic human voices are notoriously difficult to achieve. In this tutorial however, we’re aiming to get synthetic sounds with a vowel-like character.

Nice tutorial from the developers of Crystal VST.  Relevant for FS1R.

Grokking the FS1R: Part 5 – Formant Choir Dissection

March 30, 2011

A closer look at the programming of Formant-based patches, using a Choir example.

Formant Characteristics of Human Laughter

March 28, 2011

Formant Characteristics of Human Laughter


Vowel Sounds

March 28, 2011

The term formant refers to peaks in the harmonic spectrum of a complex sound. They are usually associated with, but not necessarily equal to some sort of resonance of the source. Because of their resonant origin, they tend to stay essentially the same when the frequency of the fundamental is changed. Formants in the sound of the human voice are particularly important because they are essential components in the intelligibility of speech. For example, the distinguishability of the vowel sounds can be attributed to the differences in their first three formant frequencies. Producing different vowel sounds amounts to retuning these formants within a general range of frequencies. Benade suggests the following ranges of frequencies for the formants of a male voice:

1st formant 150-850 Hz

2nd formant 500-2500 Hz

3rd formant 1500-3500 Hz

4th formant 2500-4800 Hz

The process of articulation determines the frequencies of the vocal formants. Sundberg has identified portions of the vocal anatomy which he associates with the formant frequencies. The jaw opening, which constricts the vocal tract toward the glottal end and expands it toward the lip end, is the deciding factor for the first formant. This formant frequency rises as the jaw is opened wider. The second formant is most sensitive to the shape of the body of the tongue, and the third formant is most sensitive to the tip of the tongue.

via Vowel Sounds

How the Vocal Tract Filters Sound

March 28, 2011

The two largest spaces in the vocal tract, the throat and mouth, therefore, produce the two lowest resonant frequencies, or formants. These formants are designated as F1 (the throat/pharynx) and F2 (the mouth). In singing or speaking, it is these two lowest formants that are controlled by shaping the resonant areas with lip and tongue movements to produce vowels.

via The National Center for Voice and Speech – Tutorials

Formant-based synthesis of singing

March 28, 2011

Rule-driven formant synthesis is a legacy technique that still has certain advantages over currently prevailing methods. The
memory footprint is small and the flexibility is high. Using a
modular, interactive synthesis engine, it is easy to test the
perceptual effect of different source waveform and formant
filter configurations. The rule system allows the investigation
of how different styles and singer voices are represented in
the low-level acoustic features, without changing the score. It
remains difficult to achieve natural-sounding consonants and
to integrate the higher abstraction levels of musical
Index Terms: formant synthesis, singing

Sten Ternström, Johan Sundberg

Synth Secrets, Part 23: Formant Synthesis

March 28, 2011


“ee” leap 270 2300 3000

“oo” loop 300 870 2250

“i” lip 400 2000 2550

“e” let 530 1850 2500

“u” lug 640 1200 2400

“a” lap 660 1700 2400

Finally, let’s take a look at how the FS1R imitates the frequency response of a harmonically rich signal (or noise) passed through a resonant low-pass analogue filter (see Figure 16, above right). Yes, yes… we’ve seen it all before, but bear with me one more time.

Surprisingly, we can reconstruct this frequency response using just two formants — one with a centre frequency of 0Hz and a Q of, say 0.1, and one with a centre frequency equal to the analogue filter’s Fc, and with a Q of, say, 10 (see Figure 17, right).

The result is remarkable. What’s more, we can make the formant-generated sound respond very similarly to the analogue case. To be specific, we can shift the perceived cutoff frequency by moving the centre frequency of the upper formant while narrowing the Q of the lower formant by an appropriate amount. Do this in real time, and you have a sweepable filter. Furthermore, we can increase and decrease the perceived resonance by increasing or decreasing the amplitude of the upper formant alone.

via Synth Secrets, Part 23: Formant Synthesis

Grokking the FS1R: Part 4 – A Solid attempt at Lately

March 24, 2011

Going for a target this time. 90’s pop basses from the Yamaha 4-op FM synthesizers.

Grokking the FS1R: Part 3 – Simple 2-Operator FM with variable modulator waveforms

March 24, 2011

Still feeling my way around the FS1R waveforms…

Not totally sure why I am doing these vids, but it’s easy with Camstudio, so I said why not.

FS1R Architecture

March 17, 2011

For reference / reminder. Click to view.

Grokking the FS1R: Part 2- A First FM Patch

March 17, 2011

Still some hiss – attempting to correct.

Grokking the FS1R: Part 1 – The FS1R Spectral (Wave)forms

March 17, 2011

First of a series of clips showing my adventures in learning the FS1R.

FS1R – LSBP (Level Scaling Breakpoint)

March 16, 2011

The LS BP (Level Scaling Breakpoint) parameter sets the key which will be at the center of the level scaling curve (see diagram below). The LS LeftCrv and LS RightCrv parameters specify the type of level scaling curve which will be applied to the left and right of the breakpoint, respectively: -lin (negative linear), -exp (negative exponential), +lin (positive linear), or +exp (positive exponential). Please note that the LS BP will shift in accordance with the settings of the Note Shift parameters (pages 24, 40, 59, 71). The LS LeftDepth and LS RightDepth parameters specify the depth of the curve on the corresponding sides of the breakpoint.

The Synthesis of Complex Audio Spectra by Means of Frequency Modulation

March 15, 2011

The Chowning paper that started it all.

FM synthesis Tips – Series generated by M:C

March 14, 2011

also see M:C series tables

Programming FM synths, can be daunting indeed. As such I have come up with a few tips which you may find useful.

  • Tip#1 – If youre using an identical pair of M:C ie 3:1 and 3:1 with the Carriers slightly detuned to fatten up the sound… you can usually short-cut this into a “one-into-two” ie 3:1+1 with detuned “C”s. It may not sound exactly the same as the original.
  • Tip#2 – If youre using a pair of M:C where C is the same ie 7:1 and 9:1, you can usually short-cut this into a “two-into-one” ie 7+9:1… especially useful if youre running out of operators. It may not sound exactly the same though.
  • Tip#3 – Fixed frequencies can be useful as an LFO. For “chorused” sounds, you can make one Modulator as a fixed low-frequency and itll sound like an LFO at work. This is commonly used with “in series” combinations eg Fix:M:C, although “two-into-one” combinations will also work eg Fix+M:C.
  • Personal Sidenote – Personally, I find the timbre of “in-series” modulators to be less exciting than the “two-into-one” or many-into-one combinations. I normally only use the “in-series” like 1:1:1 for producing string-type timbres. I find the “many-into-one” produces more impressive timbres.

via FM Synthesis – FM & DX synths, Operators & Algorithms, Modulator & Carrier generated Series, Modulation control – Yala Abdullah.

Pitch versus Frequency

March 5, 2011

One key distinction between these terms is that pitch is relative (a matter of common agreement among musicians), while frequency is absolute (a precise, unambiguous measurement).

via Pitch versus Frequency – Learn the difference between pitch and frequency.

Frequency Modulation FM Mathematics

March 4, 2011

Pretty important stuff…

Frequency Modulation FM Mathematics

FM Tutorial – (In)Harmonic C:M Ratios, Sidebands, Calculating the Fundamental

March 3, 2011

Invaluable Information….

FM Tutorial


February 9, 2011

By far the best FS1R demo on Youtube, courtesy of the infectiously enthusiastic Mr. Katsunori from musictrackjp

Yamaha Synths – FM or PM?

February 9, 2011

Despite the fact that Yamaha claims to be making FM synthesizers, the implementation on their chips is actually Phase Modulation. I can testify to this because I have had a chance to see the data books on these chips.

KVR topic – FS1R

February 8, 2011

Interesting tidbit from KVR circa 2005:

What makes the FS1R so unique is the extended battery of FM operators it offers. If you look at the classic X7 generation of FM ‘algorithms’ – the various ways in which operators can be routed together – there’s always at least one in which the operator feeds back into itself. This allows the operator to generate a waveform that is almost (but not entirely) random white noise, and is the only means by which an FM synthesizer can make plosive, textural and percussive sounds.

The great problem this causes is that these noise generators often have long periodic cycles that often (but not always) cause a cycling inharmonic interference to appear in extended notes. Try any X7 pad patch on a synth such as FM7 or a DX200 and you’ll probably (but not certainly) hear strange periodic shimmers, gargling and sibilance in pads that should be completely smooth when the note is held on for long periods. This distortion is a killer because it’s uncorrelated to the pitch of each note, varies with the pitch of each note and is almost impossible to equalize out.

The FS1R has 8 voiced operators (which generate the pitched tone) and 8 unvoiced operators (which generate enveloped white noise) allowing the creation of patches that have massively lower transient cycling in held notes, and the exertion of formants, allowing the strangest most ethereal voice pads any synth makes. This is further enhanced by a range of expressive change both across the keyrange and across note velocities that I’ve never encountered in any other synth.

— HanafiH

via KVR :: View topic – FS1R

FM Coarse/Ratio relationships

February 8, 2011